Synchrotrons are large instruments that offer extremely bright light, synchrotron radiation, to explore matter and understand its structure and properties. Emitted by electrons circulating at almost the speed of light, this radiation makes it possible to analyze any type of sample down to the scale of the atom.
Many analytical techniques are available in synchrotron. Each year we carry out between 5 and 10 experimental sessions on different beamlines of the ESRF (Grenoble, France), SOLEIL (Paris, France), Elettra (Triestre, Italie), SSRL (Stanford, USA) and APS (Chicago, USA) synchrotrons.
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a technique used to determine the speciation of a target element (the absorber atom) present in a solid, liquid or gaseous sample. It is an atomic scale chemical probe, specific to an element.
XAS is the measurement of transitions from core electronic states of the metal to the excited electronic states and the continuum; the former is known as X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and the latter as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) which studies the fine structure in the absorption at energies greater than the threshold for electron release. These two methods give complementary structural information, the XANES spectra reporting electronic structure and symmetry of the element site, and the EXAFS reporting numbers, types, and distances to ligands and neighboring atoms from the absorbing element (Koningsberger and Prins 1988).
The beamlines dedicated to the XAS offer various performances and specificities. Some beamlines allow the rapid analysis of concentrated samples with transmission detection mode (eg. XAFS beamline at Elettra). Other beamlines are dedicated to the analysis of highly diluted environmental samples with fluorescence detection mode and multi-element detectors (eg. BM30B-FAME at ESRF, SAMBA at SOLEIL or Experimental Station 11-2 at SSRL). Analysis with high energy resolution (HERFD-XAS, eg. BM16-FAME-UHD at ESRF) further increases the sensitivity of the technique. Spatially resolved analyses (micro-XAS) can be performed on beamlines with a micro-focused beam (eg. ID21 at ESRF or LUCIA at SOLEIL).
Total scattering measurement and analysis by the pair distribution function (PDF) can be used to characterize the local order of amorphous or crystallized systems at short distances.
The radial atomic pair distribution function is calculated by a Fourier transformation of the measured X-ray diffractogram. The pair distribution function describes the probability of finding two atoms separated by a certain distance in the material analyzed. Structural model are then used and tuned to fit the experimental PDF function.
This technique was used in Maureen Le Bars' thesis project (project ANR DIGESTATE) to characterize ZnS nanoparticles that are formed in organic waste. The data were recorded at the APS in Chicago on the beamline ID11-B.
Auteurs: Proux Olivier Lahera Eric, Net William, Kieffer Isabelle, Rovezzi Mauro, Testemale Denis, Irar Mohammed, Thomas Sara, Aguilar-Tapia Antonio, Bazarkina Elena, Prat Alain, Tella Marie, Auffan Mélanie, Rose Jerome, Hazemann Jean-Louis
Auteurs: Llorens Isabelle, Lahera Eric, Delnet William, Proux Olivier, Braillard Aurélien, Hazemann Jean-Louis, Prat Alain, Testemale Denis, Dermigny Quentin, Gélébart Frédéric, Morand Marc, Shukla Abhay, Bardou Nathalie, Ulrich Olivier, Arnaud Stephan, Berar Jean-François, Boudet Nathalie, Caillot Bernard, Chaurand Perrine, Rose Jérome, Doelsch Emmanuel, Martin Philippe, Solari Pier Lorenzo
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Auteurs: Tella M., Auffan M., Brousset L., Morel E., Proux O., Chaneac C., Angeletti B., Paillès C., Artells E., Santaella C., Rose J., Thiéry A., Bottero J.Y.
Auteurs: Auffan M., Rose J., Bottero J.Y., Lowry G., Jolivet J-P., Wiesner M.
Auteurs: Wuhib Zewde Tamrat, Jérôme Rose, Olivier Grauby, Emmanuel Doelsch, Clément Levard, Perrine Chaurand, Isabelle Basile-Doelsch